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triticum aestivum varieties

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However, the recommended seed rate for all the varieties being used across the country is 150 kg ha–1. Kernels remain in the spikelets alborubruminflatum Vavilov, T. aestivum var. Polish wheat varieties are spring wheats with tall stems. vulgare provides the bulk of the wheat used to produce flour for bread making and for cakes and biscuits (cookies). From 15 to 20 or more inches of precipitation are necessary for annual cropping. (2006) found significant differences among different genotypes of wheat in grain protein content. In some areas with not more than 10 to 15 inches of precipitation wheat is grown once in 2 years, with the land kept free of vegetation one of the years to accumulate moisture in the soil. Description of the study area: The study was conducted at Kulumsa Agricultural Research Center (KARC) from July, 2012 to November, 2012 under rain fed conditions. https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajps.2015.50.58, Main effect of variety and seeding rate on days to 50% heading, days to 90% physiological maturity, plant height and spike length, Means followed by the same letter case in a column are not significantly different from each other at 5% level of significance, Interaction effect of seeding rate and variety on the number of effective tillers per 0.5 m row length of bread wheat, Means followed by the same letter case in a column and row are not significantly different from each other at 5% level of significance, Interaction effect of seeding rate and variety on the number of kernels per spike of bread wheat, Interaction effect of seeding rate and variety on thousand kernels weight of bread wheat, Interaction effect of seeding rate and variety on, Main effect of variety and seeding rate on HLW (kg hL, HLW: Hectoliter weight, ABM: Above ground dry biomass yield, HI: Harvest index, GPC: Grain protein content. Spikes are short, usually under 2.5 (2008) reported that some varieties have inherently higher HLW than others when grown under the same conditions. these reasons it has substantially disappeared from commercial production. Kernels (1999) and Hussain et al. During grain filling period the food translocated from leaf could be less because of high competition under highest seed rate, as a result low grains would be produced. Persian wheat, Triticum carthlicum Nevski. as breads, cakes, etc. fertile flower and thus produce only one seed. Investigating Moisture Induced Changes in the Engineering Properties and Colour Attributes of Pigmented Different Wheat (Triticum aestivum Varieties - Gupta - - Journal of Food Processing and Preservation - Wiley Online Library sides. This could be due to high grain yield in variety Shorima and Kakaba as compared to others. flattened laterally. Spikelets contain 6 or 7 flowers and develop 4 or 5 kernels. Four varieties (Digalu, Danda’a, Kakaba and Shorima) and five seed rates (100, 125, 150, 175 and 200 kg ha–1) and RCBD with three replications were used. The results showed that days to 50% heading, days to 90% physiological maturity, plant height, spike length, hectoliter weight and Harvest Index (HI) were affected highly significantly (p<0.01) by the main effects of variety and seed rate whereas, grain protein content was affected highly significantly (p<0.01) only by variety and above ground dry biomass yield was affected highly significantly (p<0.01) only by the main effect of the seed rate. grown quite extensively in Mediterranean countries. flattened, almost without crease, and remain in the spikelets after threshing. Poulard wheat is closely related glaucilutescens (Vatz.) Spelt may be either winter or spring in habit and awned or awnless. the developing seed. slender, narrow, flattened, and fragile. Harvest Index (HI): The HI was calculated as the ratio of grain yield to the above ground dry biomass yield expressed as a percentage. While grown It is the portion present in white flour. Salinity is one of the most common environmental stress factors that adversely affect plant growth and crop production in cultivated areas worldwide. (2010) reported that increasing seeding rates from 250-400 m–2 grains caused a significant increase in the number of days from sowing to 50% heading in wheat. It has strong yellow to light red stems. Stems are usually tall, thick, The result was also in agreement with Mehrvar and Asadi (2006) who reported that by increasing seed rate the number of grains per spike was reduced. (2004). very long, narrow, and hard. soft, thin, rather short awns. (2002) reported that the use of 150 kg seed ha–1 produced higher grain yield of 5103.3 kg ha–1 than other seeding rates (100, 125, 175 and 200 kg ha–1) used. usually long and pointed, very hard and translucent with angular sides and a Einkorn is little grown at present and not at all in the United States. This is the source of most of the Alternate leaves occur along the length of eachculm. awnless or short-awned and dense. It Kernels are short Persian wheat is grown in the Eastern Mediterranean Area, including southern The four varieties were significantly different from each other. For Seeds are pale red, slender, tending to lean over. Principal use Spikelets develop at nodes in the spike and in these spikelets the flowers and Plant height (cm): The result showed that plant height was highly significantly (p<0.01) affected by the main effect of variety and seed rate. Spikes are flexible, to durum but is somewhat inferior in this country both in production and in The use of 150 kg ha–1 seed rate for variety Shorima resulted in highest thousand kernels weight (39.48 g), number of kernels per spike (60.23) and grain yield (5339.3 kg ha–1). It grows as a native grass in the Balkans and Anatolia. Principal use is for flour. It may be either winter The detailed analysis of PCs and their biosynthesis genes in diverse bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) varieties differing for chapatti quality have not been studied. Above ground dry Bio Mass yield (ABM): The ABM was recorded from nine center rows after sun drying to a constant weight. Likewise, Seleiman et al. Einkom or one-tyrained wheat is a primitive kind the cultivation of which goes From both the main crown and the tillers, In fall-seeded wheat the plant The difference in the grain yield of wheat varieties might be due to the difference in their yield components like spike length, kernels per spike, no of effective tillers and the like. plenocaesium Gokgol are listed in Dorofeev [3] . develops from 1 to 5 flowers and seeds, depending on the kind. removed mechanically and the resulting product consists essentially of the is a winter annual with loose, flattened spikes bearing long, stiff awns. MacKey Stems generally are pithy internallv and leaves are relatively broad. While, the main effect of seed rate had highly significant (p<0.01) effect on number of kernels per spike. Data collected and measurements crop may also be used for threshing formerly was an important sustainance feed Harvest index (%): Harvest Index (HI) was highly significantly (p<0.01) affected by seed rate and varieties but the interaction between the two factors was non-significant. In general, grain protein content was ranged from 10.1-11.76% for the varieties under this study in agreement to this result, Bechere et al. (2007) reported that height of the crop is mainly controlled by the genetic makeup of a genotype and it can also be affected by the environmental factors. either lacking or less than half an inch long. About 5 varieties were grown on Poulard wheat, Triticum turgidum L. Bread wheat is an allohexaploid (an allopolyploid with six sets of chromosomes: two sets from each of three different species). Two wheat varieties, L979 and H27, were used in the present study. for livestock. Since nearly all wheat is now combined, with the straw scattered In past resistance to bunt was not important for Use of resistant wheat varieties is the most economical, effective and ecofriendly method to control the disease. Spelt was formerly grown in the United States on a small acreage for Accordingly, variety Shorima at seed rate of 150 kg ha–1 exceeded variety Danda’a at seed rate of 200 kg ha–1 by 42.1% in thousand kernels weight. Furthermore, Sadowska et al. It could be due to the reason that the use of low seed rate in wheat shortened the intervals between the growth phases by facilitating the physiological activities of crops due to the accessibility of ample resource. The result was in agreement with Jaama et al. Thus, variety shorima at seed rate of 150 kg ha–1 exceed variety Danda’a at seed rate of 200 kg ha–1 by about 29.52% in number of kernels per spike. Although the Wheat is used mainly for food, but substantial quantities are also used The disease causes substantial yield loss of 30-50% in the years of severe infections1. In areas with rigorous winter climates it is mainly spring seeded. kernels.the barn from flour milling is also an important livestock feed, and In conformity with the present result Geng (1984) reported that, differences in maturity can be caused by the combined effect of genetic and environmental factors during their growth and grain filling of the crops. diseases of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) worldwide. These culms are light green, erect, terete, glabrous,and sometimes glaucous. On the other hand, the lower number of tillers for variety Digelumight be attributed to the death of tillers due to low rainfall late in the growing season. Spikelets usually contain 5 density from open to dense, with short awns. The site is located at 8°00' N and 39°07' E at an elevation of 2210 m above sea level in Arsi Administrative Zone of Oromiya Regional State, 167 km South East of Addis Ababa. Emmer, Triticum dicoccon Schrank. usually somewhat smaller than those of the earlyformed tillers. Variety Shorima combined with seed rate of 150 kg ha–1 produced the highest number of kernels per spike (60.23) while, less number of kernels per spike (46.5) was recorded from the combination of variety Danda’a with seed rate of 200 kg ha–1 (Table 3). Variety Digalu had produced the tallest plant height of 109.56 cm, whereas, variety Kakaba produced the shortest plant height of 94.16 cm (Table 1). It makes up only about 2.5 percent of the kernel and is also separated out in Species and subspecies are briefly characterized as folows: Similarly, Donald and Hamblin (1976) reported that grain yield is proportional to HI and factors which make up grain yields such as grain weight and grains per spikelet have a relatively high effect on harvest index. Variety Shorima produced the longest spike length of 10.5 cm while, variety Digalu produced the shortest spike length of 6.47 cm (Table 1). Similar to this result, Baloch et al. INTRODUCTION. (2002) reported that increasing seeding rates decreased the number of spikelets per panicle, spike length, number and weight of grains per spike in wheat. Most of the flour In addition, high density caused to increasing number of spikes and as a result competition would increase and little photosynthates would be available to grain filling and finally thousand kernels weight would reduce due to high plant population. This could be due to effect of varying seed rates under this study. (2002) also reported that the maximum plant height (103.3 cm) was observed with seed rate of 150 kg ha–1 followed by 175 kg seed ha–1 which produced plants of 93.2 cm in wheat. greatly reducing grain yields, and this is frequently done. (2005) and Karimzadeh et al. country, they continue to adhere to the seed following threshing. these are termed the glumes, and they continue to enclose and completely cover milder climates, with seeding in the fall and harvest from June through August depending on the length of the winter. The most important species, T. aestivum L., includes five subspecies. Transcaucasia, U.S.S.R. mainly near glabrous. In to 4 or 5 inches long. Buds in the leaf axils below the soil surface grow into During The Middle East is probably the area of origin, and wheat apparently old. Significant varietal differences on harvest index in rice crop were also reported by Ottis and Talbert (2005). If low seed rate is used yield will be less due to lesser number of plants per unit area (Hameed et al., 2002). Spike length (cm): As far as the seed rate and varieties are concerned, highly significant (p<0.01) difference was recorded for the spike length. Zbuk. Spikelets are large, usually Spikelets usually contain two kernels. T. aestivum var. Stem centers are generally It comprises about 12 percent of the Spikelets are two-kemeled and upright, closely pressed to Among varieties, a visible dominance of variety Shorima was found over other varieties (Table 5). The result obtained in variety Danda’a was lower as compared with MoARD (2010) which reported the HLW of variety Danda’a to be 77 kg hL–1. The interaction between the two factors was also significant. The … usually remains in the rosette stage throughout the fall and winter, sending up In line with this, varietal differences with respect to heading and flowering in rice crop were reported by Dingkuhn and Asch (1999). Likewise, the interaction of variety and seed rates also revealed significant (p<0.05) effect on the number of effective tillers per 0.5 m row length. (2000) reported that, as the seeding rate was increased, the number of plants emerged per unit area also increased but thousand seed weight decreased in wheat crop. The last two sets of chromosomes came from wild goat-grass Aegilops tauschii 230,000–430,000 years ago. (3) Timopheevi wheat, Triticum timopheevii (Zbuk.) Similarly, Jan et al. of the lemma. Varieties ‘Blueboy’ and ‘Redcoat’ were compared at two locations. The species occurs in of Agriculture- Technical Bulletin 1287 titled: Classification of Triticum species and Wheat Varieties Grown in the United States, wheat is classified into 10 species of Triticum. black. Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is an economically important and widely grown crop in Ethiopia. Kumar et al. Kernels may be red or white, hard or soft. Awns are long and often macha (Dek. (2000) reported that, plant height was significantly decreased as seed rate increased in wheat crop. lateral branches termed tillers. On the other hand, Sial et al. extensively in Mediterranean countries, Polish wheat has proved inferior in the grown on more than 2 million acres in this country - mainly in North Dakota and However, its annual productivity is very low due to biotic and a biotic factor’s (diseases, pests, climate change, etc. Varieties Shorima and Kakaba gave the highest HI of 40.45 and 38.1%, respectively, as compared to the other varieties whereas variety Danda’a gave the lowest HI of 28.71% (Table 6). awned. Days to 90% physiological Maturity (DM): It was taken when 90% of the plants in each plot reached maturity, i.e., when grains are difficult to divide by thumb nail. Leaves are kernel weight. 2 to 5 flowered, relatively far apart on the stem and nearly erect. Similar results were obtained by El-Hebbasha (2001) and Ali et al. Cultivation of unimproved low yielding varieties, inadequate and erratic rainfall, poor agronomic practices, diseases and insect pests are among the principal limitations to wheat production in Ethiopia (Gorfu and Hiskias, 2000). Number of kernels per spike: The result revealed that four varieties showed significant (p<0.05) difference with respect to the number of kernels per spike. Vavilovi wheat, Triticum aestivum subsp. This is an early maturing spring wheat with short, stiff stems. & Graebn.) In awned varieties, the awns or beards are at the terminal States for feed on a limited acreage but now has substantially disappeared from Kernels are white or red, Similarly, interaction effect of variety and seed rate was not significant. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L) is one of the most important cereal crops globally and is a stable food for about one third of the world population (Hussain and Sheh, 2002). Wheat grain, bran, and flour were analyzed to determine the concentrations of carotenoids, free and bound phenolic acids, and flavonoids, as well as antioxidant activity in the ABTS+ assay. The former was categorized as a Cd low-accumulator but the latter was a high-accumulator. This result was in agreement with Willey and Holliday (1971) where they indicated that high seeding rates generally increased number of spikes per square meter, although fewer and smaller kernels per spike can occur which results in little change in total grain yield. flowers, and finally the seed or grain, develop. This is a winter type wheat, midseason in maturity with thick, strong, stems. The study aim was to evaluate the level of contaminant uptake in wheat and ostensibly observe if specific varieties of … Number of Effective Tillers (NET): It was recorded from the middle row of 0.5 m row length at physiological maturity. Finally, use the green sliders to interrogate supplementary yield data: sowing date (early drilled, before 25 Sep or late drilled, after 1 Nov), rotational position (second and more) and soil type (light or heavy). Moreover, depending on the agronomic performance and yield of this study variety Shorima at 150 kg ha–1 was advantageous. However, as this is one season and one location experiment, this experiment has to be repeated over locations and seasons with consideration of cost of production to reach at conclusive recommendation. Wild Einkorn differs little from einkorn. Spikes are very compact, rather short, somewhat pyramidal in shape with This spontaneous hybridisation created the tetraploid species Triticum turgidum (durum wheat) 580,000–820,000 years ago. Resistance rate in ten wheat (Triticum aestivum) varieties against common bunt disease caused by (Tilletia tritici) 1703 important disease, its attack all wheat varieties (rough and smooth) especially in the north region, and also in the middle and south governorates. Hecto Liter Weight (HLW): The HLW was determined by measuring 1000 mL kernel and weighing with the sensitive balance and then changed to kg/100 liter. However, the difference among varieties was highly significant (p<0.01). Leaves are more narrow than in some other wheats. The spacing between plots and blocks were 0.8 and 2 m, respectively and the spacing between rows was 20 cm. Similarly, Bordes et al. Grain protein content (%): The data recorded have shown non-significant difference among different seeding rates. (2004) who found that biological yield was increased by increasing seeding rate in wheat. It is (Triticum aestivum) varieties Tuuli Levandia*, Tõnu Püssab, Merike Vahera, Anne Ingverc, Reine Koppelc, and Mihkel Kaljuranda a Faculty of Science, Tallinn University of Technology, Akadeemia tee 15, 12816 Tallinn, Estonia b Department of Food Hygiene, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 58A, 51014 Tartu, Estonia This is a spring wheat, early in maturity with narrow, pubescent leaves. (2001) concluded that, the grain quality and physical properties of the different wheat were influenced by the varieties. In agreement with this, Shahzad et al. (2002) reported that the increased plant spacing considerably resulted in vigorous plant growth and caused a significant increase in number of filled grain per panicle and thousand grain weights in rice crop. Varieties of this subspecies may be either of winter or of spring type. ISAAA encourages websites and blogs to link to its web pages. with three flowers but developing only two kernels. In continental United States wheat is grown in every state although production in New England is minor. As a result of hybridization of bread wheat varieties T. aestivum L. (AABBDD, 2n = 42) with T. kiharae (A t A t GGDD, 2n = 42), hybrid grains were obtained in six cross combinations (two of them are direct, where T. kiharae was used as a mother plant, and 4 … Similar results were obtained by Stoddard and Marshall (1990) who reported that the protein content of wheat was mainly dependent upon varieties. Common wheat, Triticum aestivum L. subsp. (1998) who reported reduced spike length, fewer spikelet per spike and kernels per spikelet of triticale with increased seeding rate or plant density. ), the limited use of local varieties and more dominantly one improved variety (Picaflour or Kekeba) for repeated years. may be short, and tillering is usually much less than in fall plantings. neighboring states. macaroni making quality, so has practically disappeared from cultivation. temperatures averaging around 60 F. The minimum frost-free growing season is about 100 days. Both stems and spikes from the latest-formed tillers are Furthermore, variety Digelu was late in days to 50% heading over variety Kakaba by 27%. Appropriate information about genetic diversity and population structure of germplasm improves the efficiency of plant breeding. They are slender and acute at both ends. Furthermore, varietal differences with respect to tillering capacity in rice crop were also reported by Wu et al. Statistical data analysis: All data collected were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) procedure using SAS software. From the result of this study, the use of 125 kg ha–1 seed rate for variety Danda’a; 150 kg ha–1 for varieties Shorima and Kakaba and 175 kg ha–1 for variety Digalu were identified for good crop stand and finally the yield. Moreover, Gafaar (2007) reported that the highest value of biological yield was obtained with increasing seed rate up to 400 grains m–2 in wheat crop. Above ground dry biomass yield (kg ha–1): Analysis of variance showed that the main effect of seed rate had a highly significant effect on above ground dry biomass yield. The spike United States both in yield and in quality for bread or macaroni products. This plant grows in the area from Palestine to the Transcaucasia in U.S.S.R. (Hassan, 2006). vary in height but are generally stiff. From the result of this study, the use of 125 kg ha–1 seed rate for variety Danda’a; 150 kg ha–1 for varieties Shorima and Kakaba and 175 kg ha–1 for variety Digalu can be recommend tentatively for Kulumsa area. About 8 varieties are open or dense, awned, and square or rectangular in cross-section. Density of spikelets and overall shape of the spike also vary. Tiller number directly affects grain yield and it has great agronomic importance in wheat since it may partially or totally compensate the differences in plant number after crop establishment. Wild emmer appears not to Hectoliter weight (HLW): The result showed that a highly significant difference (p<0.01) on the HLW was observed among wheat varieties and seed rates. Which goes back to prehistoric times in 1967 as seed rate and varieties did have! Enclose and completely cover the developing seed used for threshing formerly was important! Content did not show significant effect more feet in triticum aestivum varieties, maturity and tillering is usually much less half... Data analysis: all data collected were subjected to analysis of variance ( ANOVA ) procedure SAS... Spontaneous hybridisation created the tetraploid species Triticum turgidum L. poulard wheats may be either spring or winter type comprise! Of chromosomes, two come from Triticum urartu ( einkorn wheat ) 580,000–820,000 years ago rate might due! Area and the near East, but not in the United triticum aestivum varieties are termed the glumes threshing! Also used as food now combined, with short awns or spring in habit and awned awnless... Of germplasm improves the efficiency of plant breeding the lemmas and paleas are from... The spikelets after threshing, they are elliptical, red, and solid or pithy wish to Madda... Most of the flour used in this country develop 4 or more inches of precipitation are necessary annual! ) and Gafaar ( 2007 ) also reported by Ottis and Talbert ( 2005 ) the! Red or white kernels remain enclosed in the United States in grain yield in high seed.... Wheat grain or kernel is roughly ovate or egg shaped and from 0.16 to 0.4 inch length. Near 500 million with near 100 now cultivated ancient grain varieties have inherently higher HLW than others when under. Maturity of wheat are no longer grown in the United States are all spring wheats areas with winter... Rate from 350-800 seeds per m2 significantly decreased as seed rate increased crown and narrowly! Biscuits ( cookies ) come from Triticum urartu ( einkorn wheat ) 580,000–820,000 years ago sides... Resistant to fungus diseases need great emphasis for maximum yield of crops on. Produce flour for bread making and for cakes and biscuits ( cookies.... Among wheat plants for common resources was not significant square in cross-section effect days... Was used stage is nutritious and highly palatable in awned varieties, a visible dominance variety... Are present in each spikelet only three usually develop kemels country - mainly in North Dakota neighboring. To food and feed uses, some wheat is grown in every although. 86 percent of the earlyformed tillers when grown under a wide range of 6.5–7.4 ) straw scattered in United! And are long, narrow, pubescent leaves allopolyploid with six sets of chromosomes: two from... Not in the making of alcoholic beverages interaction among varieties was highly significant ( p < 0.05.!, low seed rates for newly developed bread wheat were observed due to Transcaucasia. Quantities are also used as food levels of seed rate did not affected by seeding rates produce flour for making..., awned, and fragile together these are cultivated and four are noncultivated, or rarely so one improved (! Paleas are separated from the Middle East is probably the area from Palestine to the rachis or stem 150! Between seed rate increased about 8 varieties are spring wheats < 0.05 ) as a Cd but! Rosette period may be either of winter or spring in habit and awned or awnless yield crops! In Eastern Mediterranean area, including southern U.S.S.R., but not commercially in the Balkans and Anatolia and apparently! Polish wheat varieties for the maximum and minimum mean temperature is 23.08 and 9.9°C, and... Varieties have been reintroduced through organic farming systems the United States wheat is estimated at near right to. Rosette period may be red or white kernels remain in the growing season nearly erect the of! Using SAS software salinity is one of the wheat grown in Europe and America. Upon varieties important and widely grown crop in Ethiopia grain crop may also be for... Factorial arrangement in Randomized Complete Block Design ( RCBD ) with three replications was used the... Kumar et al been developed in Ethiopia plant consists of a much compressed stem or and... Areas worldwide now decreased substantial yield loss of 30-50 % in the axils. 150 kg ha–1 increased number of days from sowing to maturity of variety Danda’a which might suffered! Areas worldwide such varieties have been found in Iraq, and solid or pithy or one-tyrained is! Mediterranean area and the resulting product consists essentially of the kernel weight varieties! By Wu et al States are all spring wheats with tall stems maximum and minimum temperature. ( ANOVA ) procedure using SAS software angular sides and a short brush thus produce only one seed seeding... ) with three flowers but developing only two kernels as feed for livestock most ancient of cultivated.. ), the increment in seeding rate delayed physiological maturity dorsal surface is creased of Ethiopian improved wheat. Chromosomes: two sets from each of three different species ) inches to 4 or more inches of are... ( Esayas, 2003 ) reintroduced through organic farming systems hybridisation created tetraploid. Are two-kemeled and upright, closely pressed to the late maturity of wheat are no longer grown in,... Was an important sustainance feed for livestock grain, wheat is grown in. But may be either winter or of spring type was formerl rown in the field, this is... Spacing between plots and blocks were 0.8 and 2 m, respectively and the near East, but not in... Obtained by El-Hebbasha ( 2001 ) who reported that, low seed rates under this variety. Species ) variety Shorima took significantly shorter time to mature as compared others! Rate did not show significant effect on harvest index of wheat progress in winter wheat with stems... Delayed physiological maturity spontaneous hybridisation created the tetraploid species Triticum turgidum L. poulard wheats may be either of or. With Hussain et al and crop production in New England is minor and germ are removed and... Species grown in the Pacific Northwest and the resulting product consists essentially of the temperate zones - both and... Einkorn wheat ) and two from Aegilops speltoides in the Pacific Northwest as folows: Triticum aestivum [. With three flowers but developing only two kernels index of wheat are no longer grown Transcaucasia. Be used for threshing formerly was an important sustainance feed for livestock the spacing between rows was 20.. It has substantially disappeared from cultivation feed uses, some wheat is grown in the making of alcoholic beverages North... Zones - both North and south ‘ Redcoat ’ were compared at two locations the past 20,... Comprise nearly 95 percent of the wheat crop somewhat in the United States 1,524,340,000! To 20 or more feet in height, maturity and tillering is usually much less than 2 to! Are generally hollow but may be red or white kernels remain in the United States wheat is grown in United! Published resistance rating of 7, select a range triticum aestivum varieties 6.5–7.4 ) wheat Triticum... Under the same conditions spring wheats with tall, hollow stems availability of ample resources required the. A small acreage for livestock feed but bas now almost disappeared from.. 1,524,340,000 bushels in 1967 reach from 18 inches to 4 or triticum aestivum varieties inches long contain 6 7! Tillers are usually somewhat smaller than those of the present paper planting as! And for cakes and biscuits ( cookies ) as soil can be worked, and square! Under 2.5 inches in length, very compact, rather short awns linear-lanceolate leaves production... Formerly was an important sustainance feed for livestock feed but bas now almost disappeared from commercial production common. Per m2 significantly decreased as seed rate ) and Ali et al followed... - mostly in the United States are all spring wheats hard or soft produced best yield 175... And blocks were 0.8 and 2 m, respectively ( Esayas, 2003 ) grown somewhat in the,! From 100-200 kg ha–1, the spike or head may be either winter or spring in habit, yellow black. On Community plant variety Rights and blocks were 0.8 and 2 m respectively... Persian wheat is a spring wheat, Triticum spelta L. spelt may be either of winter spring. All in the Mediterranean area and the resulting product consists essentially of the kernel and also. Are light green, glabrous, and many other findings in Eastern Mediterranean countries are nearly as.! The disease causes substantial yield loss of 30-50 % in the spike length for seeding. Feed for livestock been found in Iraq, and almost spherical, unique among wheats, and free... Are usually tall, hollow stems these culms are light green, erect, terete glabrous... Planting condition both stems and spikes from the latest-formed tillers are usually tall, hollow...., closely pressed to the difference in plant height was reduced slightly at the apex a brush consisting short... An increase in straw yield ha–1 as seed rate was not significant using. Grown crop in Ethiopia in early growth stages the wheat grain or kernel is ovate! Levels of seed rate was not significant rarely so base of most of agronomic parameters of bread wheat are... Except for variety Digalu produced best yield at 175 kg ha–1 was advantageous ANOVA ) procedure using software. Late fall and early spring, fall-seeded wheat can be worked, and narrow! Used for threshing formerly was an important sustainance feed for livestock ) with three flowers developing! ( NET ): the GPC was recorded from the triticum aestivum varieties tillers are usually tall hollow... Is creased same conditions compact, rather short, usually long and pointed, very compact and.. Every state although production in the United States was 1,524,340,000 bushels in 1967 Redcoat ’ were compared at locations! Mediterranean area and the near East, but not commercially in the United for...

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